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What’s with this “Wren” thing?
The oldest extant version of the fable
are presenting here appeared in 1913 in the first volume of a two-volume anthology
Saxon folktales (Plattdeutsche
Volksmärchen “Low German Folktales”)
collected by Wilhelm Wisser (1843–1935). Read
(Dutch on Wast Frisian Substrata)
Ljouwert ... Leeuwarden ... one of Fryslân’s cities
in which Dutch comes with Frisian substrates
Language Information: “City
Frisian” (Stadsfrys, Frisian Stêdsk, Dutch Stadsfries or Stadfries) is actually not Frisian but denotes Dutch dialects based on Frisian substrata. They may be considered Fryslân’s counterparts of Northern Germany’s Missingsch (i.e., German dialects on Low Saxon substrata) and Trasianka (i.e. Russian on Belarusian substrata).
These Stadsfrys varieties
began to evolve in the 16th century, when Fryslân (Westerlauwer Friesland) lost its independence and the Dutch language was imposed
upon its population. Dutch inroads were particularly strong in the larger centers
their Dutch-speaking administration, education and social élites, thus with strong pressures and incentives for urban Frisian speakers to
adopt Dutch as their primary language. In the process of conversion, Dutch
came to be superimposed upon a Frisian base. In other words, Frisian townspeople
to speak Dutch
with more or less Frisian interference. They retained numerous phonological,
lexical, morphological, syntactic and idiomatic features of Frisian in their
versions of Dutch. As neerlandization continued, these urban language varieties
came to be regarded as casual local dialects, even as slang, and most of their
speakers became proficient in Standard Dutch as well, many of them also in
Frisian. Stadsfrys came to be socially restricted, being used among relatives, friends and
neighbors, considered by most people inferior to “proper” Dutch and Frisian, at least in more formal, public settings. However, at
earlier stages of its development, prior to full standardization of Dutch
and reassertion and standardization of Westerlauwer Frisian, Stadsfrys was considered more prestigeous than Frisian. Several Stadsfrys varieties
are still being used these days, though the number of their speakers is declining.
Fryslân’s capital city Ljouwert (Leeuwarden) about 25% of the population still speak
the local Stadsfrys known as Liwwarders(or Liwwadders). Other surviving varieties are used in Boalsert (Bolsward), Dokkum, Frjentsjer
It Hearrenfean (Heerenveen), Snits (Sneek) and Starum (Stavoren). Being essentially
varieties upon Frisian substrates, they are related to the similarly evolved
dialects of less urbanized It Bilt (Het Bildt), Kollum and Amelân
To a limited extent, Stadsfrys is
a written language, featured mostly in works of local interest. However, there
is no standard orthography for it, and individual authors’ spelling conventions tend to be
upon Dutch or Frisian spelling, or on a mixture of both.
Genealogy: Indo-European > Germanic > Western > Low German > Low Franconian > Dutch on Frisian substrates